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Flexible Passwordless Rails Authentication with devise-passwordless

For PodQueue, I wanted users to be able to sign up with just an email address, instead of having to also pick a username and password at sign-up time. You’ve probably seen this strategy with some other online services like Slack, where the login process can be handled by a so-called “magic link” that gets emailed to the email address associated with your account, and clicking the link logs you in. The problem is, I already had users with passwords, and I still wanted to support password-based authentication for users who want it—the passwordless login flow is just available for users who find that easier.

You may be concerned that passwordless email-based login is “insecure”, but if you allow for email-based account/password recovery (e.g. the Devise :recoverable strategy), you already have an email-based login process even if you don’t call it that.

I was already using Devise for authentication, and settled on the devise-passwordless gem to provide the core of my passwordless authentication strategy. Out of the box, devise-passwordless assumes you’re only going to use a passwordless authentication strategy, but with a little work you can adapt it to work flexibly alongside password-based authentication. This assumes you’ve already set up Devise, and followed the default install intructions for devise-passwordless for your Devise resources. The only resource I’m using Devise for is my User model, which I assume will be the case for most other projects as well, but obviously you’ll need to adapt things for your particular goals and Devise configuration.

I also assume you have templates generated for overriding your Devise controllers, with e.g.:

rails generate devise:controllers devise/users

You should now have overridable Devise controllers in app/controllers/devise/users/ and app/controllers/devise/devise-passwordless/. Your config/routes.rb should have a Devise configuration like the following:

devise_for :users, controllers: { registrations: 'devise/users/registrations',
                                  sessions: 'devise/passwordless/sessions' }
devise_scope :user do
  get '/users/magic_link',
      to: 'devise/passwordless/magic_links#show',
      as: 'users_magic_link'

You then need to override the default devise-passwordless sessions controller at app/controllers/devise/devise-passwordless/sessions_controller.rb so that it will use the default password-based authentication method if a password parameter is present. Mine looks like the following:

# frozen_string_literal: true

module Devise
  module Passwordless
    class SessionsController < Devise::SessionsController
      def create
        super and return if create_params[:password].present?

        self.resource = resource_class.find_by(email: create_params[:email])
        self.resource ||= resource_class.find_by(username: create_params[:email])
        if self.resource
          set_flash_message(:notice, :magic_link_sent, now: true)
          set_flash_message(:alert, :not_found_in_database, now: true)

        self.resource =
        render :new


      def translation_scope
        if action_name == 'create'


      def create_params
        resource_params.permit(:email, :password, :remember_me)

The main things I’ve modified here are permitting the :password param in create_params, and calling out to super if it’s present. I also allow logging in by username or email address, so there’s some extra code to do that as well.

You’ll also need to allow users to modify their account without a password. I have this in app/controllers/devise/users/registrations_controller.rb to allow this for all users:


# Allow updating Devise resources without the current password
def update_resource(resource, params)
  if params[:password].blank?
    params.delete(:password_confirmation) if params[:password_confirmation].blank?

Since we’re using devise-passwordless for our sessions controller, we also need to add a few extra keys to config/locales/devise.en.yml, e.g.:

        signed_in: "Signed in successfully."
        signed_out: "Signed out successfully."
        already_signed_out: "Signed out successfully."

You may also want to customize some user flows, account settings, or email views depending on if a user has a password set or not. You can easily check this with e.g. current_user.encrypted_password.blank?.